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CMR- ‘Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road’ – fr. ‘Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route was concluded on May 19th 1956 in Geneva and it defines the rights and obligations of contract parties in road transport. CMR or the international waybill is a transportation contract. Its absence however doesn’t make the contract invalid, nor does it nullify the regulations of CMR convention. Three parties are included in the CMR contract: the sender, carrier and the recipient. More information at: https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XI-B-11&chapter=11&lang=en
AWB- Air Waybill is issued by the air carrier for every shipment in particular and cannot be issued for the entire aircraft. The content of AWB is regulated by protocol, and IATA (International Air Transport Association) has defined its uniformity.
B/L-Bill of Lading is a certificate that the carrier has received the goods for shipping by sea. This bill of ladding is specific for being a security, meaning that the bearer of the bill is also the owner of the shipment. There are different classifications of the bill of ladding and the group bill is one of them
CIM – International Rail Consignment Note is a certificate with the meaning that the carrier has received the goods for shipping by rail. The original accompanies the shipment and the forwarder gets the verified copy. It can be issued for the whole train and every wagon has a separate note. More information at: http://www.cit-rail.org/en/rail-transport-law/cotif/
include 11 parities or legally regulated and clearly defined rules about key points in logistics process. Parities define the obligations of the seller and the buyer regarding the costs, risks and insurance of goods, and four parities are regarding the sea freight transport in particular. Parities are obligatory if they are contracted, but the transport can be realized by an internal contract without defining them. However in practice the parities are used most of the times because they clearly and precisely define the obligations within shipment and delivery, organizisation and realization of logistics processes, providing of necessary documentation, import/export customs, goods insurance and the division of costs and risks. More information at: : http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/documents/procurement/documents/UNDP-Shipping-Guide.pdf
convention (fr. Transport International par la Rout) regulates the transit flows of the signed countries and applies to road transport. TIR enables the simplification of the customs procedures in the transit countries.TIR enables import/export customs to apply only to the home countries of export/import in the transit countries aresimplified. This way the transit flows are faster. Carriers that meet the demands of IRU (International Road Union) can apply for TIR carnet in Serbian Chamber of Commerce, and the carnet must be handed in after the transport is finished. More information at: https://www.iru.org/en_iru_tirconvention
TIR-EPD (Electronic Pre-Declaration) – An application for data entry and sending, regarding TIR carnet to the New Computerized Transit System (NCTS).
ATA – carnet is a customs document defined by ATA and Istanbul convention. ATA carnet enables temporary import and export after a defined period without paying of the import duties http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/conventions/pf_ata_system_conven.aspx
European Agreement concerning the international carriage of Dangerous goods by Road is an agreement which defines the technology of transport of dangerous goods, as well as packaging and marking of the goods and vehicles. Dangerous goods are divided in 9 groups in the agreement and each of the groups is specific in requirements for transport realization. River transport of dangerous goods is defined by ADN – The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways. For more information: http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/adr/adr2013/13contentse.html
Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for such Carriage defines the groups of perishable goods, terms of transport, and the vehicles and equipment necessary for transport. In order to be able to transport the perishable goods the vehicle must be ATP certified by guaranteeing the thermal insulating chamber with the cooling unit is triple-tested and the results of at least two tests match. The technology of perishable goods transport is complicated mainly because of the compatible groups of foods that appear. For more information: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp11/atp.html
European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport defines the allowed duration of driving and mandatory duration of crew resting time. More information at: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/sc1/sc1aetr.html
Certificate of origin of goods
a document of great importance for the importers because it can reduce the cost of duties. EUR 1 is a certificate issued on buyer’s request and enables the duty-free import of EUR 1 defined goods. CT2 is a document for duty-free import from Russian Federation. Form A is a certificate of domestic origin of goods (Serbia).
T1 and T2
Transit documents within EU are T1 and T2. T1 document regards the goods not originating from EU, while T2 document is used for internal transport EU – for the goods originating from EU. More information: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/business/customs-procedures/what-is-customs-transit/common-union-transit_en