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The Convention (‘Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road’ – French: ‘Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route) was concluded on May 19, 1956 in Geneva and defines the rights and obligations of the contracting parties in road transport. CMR or international waybill is a contract of carriage. Its absence, however, does not mean that the contract does not exist and does not invalidate the provisions of the CMR Convention. Within the scope of the CMR convention, three subjects appear: the sender of the goods, the carrier and the recipient of the goods.


The waybill in international air transport (eng. Air Waybill) is issued by the airline and is issued for each shipment separately and cannot be issued for the entire vehicle. The mandatory content of the AWB is regulated by protocol, and IATA (International Air Transport Association) has established its uniformity.


Bill of lading is a confirmation that the carrier has received the specified goods for sea transport. Specificity of the bill of lading is that the bill of lading is a security, that is, the holder of the bill of lading is also the owner of the goods. There are several divisions of bills of lading, and a special group consists of group bills of lading.


International Rail Consignment Note is the carrier’s confirmation that he has accepted the goods marked on it for transport. The original waybill accompanies the goods on their way, and the forwarding agent receives a certified copy. A waybill can be issued for the entire train, if it is a regular train, and in each wagon there is a separate waybill for that wagon. More information at: http://www.cit-rail.org/en/rail-transport-law/cotif/

Incoterms 2010

They include 11 parities, i.e. legally regulated and clearly defined rules on the key points of logistics processes. The parities define the obligations of the seller and the buyer in terms of costs, risks and insurance of the goods, and four of the parities specifically refer to water transport. The parities are binding if they are contracted, but the transport process can be realized by an internal contract without defining any of the parities. In practice, however, parities are most often used because they clearly and precisely define obligations within: delivery and handover of goods, organization and realization of logistics processes, provision of necessary documentation, export and import customs clearance, insurance of goods and sharing of costs and risks. More information at: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/documents/procurement/documents/UNDP-Shipping-Guide.pdf


The Convention (French: Transport International par la Rout) regulates the transit flows of the countries that are signatories to the convention, and it refers to road transport. The TIR Convention enables simplified customs procedures in transit countries, and is based on 5 pillars. The TIR Convention enables export and import customs clearance procedures to be carried out only in the home countries of export/import, while in transit countries these procedures are not carried out, but defined coupons are verified. In this way, transit flows are simplified and accelerated. Carriers who meet the conditions defined by the International Road Union (IRU) can apply for TIR carnets at the Serbian Chamber of Commerce, and after the transport has been carried out, the TIR carnet must be discharged.


(Electronic Pre-Declaration) – an application intended for entering and sending data on TIR carnets to the New Computerized System (NCTS).


Carnet is a customs document defined by ATA and Istanbul Convention. The ATA carnet enables o temporary import and, after a certain time, re-export without paying import duties. http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/facilitation/instrument-and-tools/conventions/pf_ata_system_conven.aspx


(French Conférence Européenne des Ministres des Transports, Engl. the European Conference of Ministers of Transport), intergovernmental organization was founded on October 17, 1953. The movement of road transport vehicles across the border between countries is regulated, i.e. each border crossing and movement in a foreign country requires a permit, a community permit, a CEMT multilateral permit, or a permit based on bilateral agreements. CEMT multilateral permits provide the European Union countries, the CIS countries and the candidate countries for membership in the European Union with the opportunity to access the open market. The multilateral quota system is based on the principles established by the Council of Ministers, and the distribution of CEMT multilateral permits is done every year. Since 2006, the ITF determines the base quotas for each of the CEMT members every year. Then, each member state, based on the number of vehicles, converts the base quota into CEMT permits and distributes them to carriers. CEMT has prescribed terms of use that must be adhered to by all CEMT members, in order to avoid abuses and non-compliance with the principles on which the multilateral quota system is based. More information at: http://www.mgsi.gov.rs/sites/default/files/Koriscenje%20i%20razduzenje%20vrem%D0%B5nskih%20i%20cemt%20dozvola.zip


European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by Road is an agreement that defines the technology of transporting dangerous goods, as well as packaging, marking and labeling of packaging and vehicles. Dangerous goods are, within the framework of the agreement, divided into 9 groups of dangerous goods, and each of these groups has its own specificities and necessary requirements for the realization of transport. The ADN – European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways is defined for river transport of dangerous goods. For more information: http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/adr/adr2013/13contentse.html


Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for such Carriage defines goods belonging to the group of perishable goods, transport conditions, as and the vehicles and equipment needed to transport these goods. In order for the vehicle to be able to transport goods, defined as perishable, it must have an ATP certificate that guarantees that the thermally insulated chamber with the refrigeration unit has been triple tested and that the results of at least two tests match. Technology of transporting perishable goods is complicated, first of all because of the compatible food groups that appear. For more information: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp11/atp.html


European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport defines the permitted driving times and mandatory rest times of the crew. More information at: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/sc1/sc1aetr.html

Certificate of origin of goodse

A document of great importance for importers because it can reduce customs clearance costs. EUR 1 is a certificate of origin of goods that is issued at the customer’s request and enables the goods covered by EUR 1 not to be subject to import duties. CT2 is a document that gives the right to import goods from Russia duty-free. Form A is a certificate of domestic origin of goods.

T1 and T2

Within the transport procedures of the Union, basic transit documents are T1 and T2. T1 document refers to goods whose origin is not from the European Union, while T2 is used for internal EU transport – for goods that originate from the European Union.

EX –A paper

Is a document representing the customs declaration of the European Union. More information at: http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/procedural_aspects/export/procedure/index_en.htm